ecklonia radiata characteristics

The study was conducted in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia, which is characterized by short-period, wind-driven waves. This was used to calculate the shoaling coefficient [eqn (5); Haynes, 2018]. This can be explained by the plant submergence ratio, where a shallower water depth implies that a higher fraction of the water column is affected by the vegetation, and is therefore also dependent on vegetation height (i.e. Refine results Refine results. Dubi and Tørum, 1996; Allen and Webb, 2011; Maza et al., 2015). Ecklonia radiata is a species of kelp found in the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Oman, southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand. Despite generalizations that coastal vegetation has a significant wave-damping effect, few studies have extended the effect of drag on currents within kelp beds to surface waves (Rosman et al., 2013); where available, data have provided variable results among studies. The stipitate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, attenuated waves (Mork, 1996), and this wave damping increased with bed density (Dubi and Tørum, 1994). 1A). As expected, this pattern did not change for Mornington and the Williamstown sites when the data were analysed based on wind direction (Supplementary data Table S1), as the reefs at these sites are parallel to shore. Predicted wave heights were generated to account for shoaling [eqn (6)]. Other explanations for a lower wave transmission at the kelp bed during northerly winds (e.g. Four seaweed fractions were tested for their digestibility and prebiotic effects using an in vitro anaerobic fermentation system containing human faecal inocula. 42 km) and Mornington reef (approx. EC / List no. © The Author(s) 2019. Ecklonia radiata (Spined kelp), Port Elizabeth Uploaded by Muelly. Morris RL, Bilkovic DM, Boswell MK, et al. Average significant wave heights of 0.31–0.88 m were recorded at the sites during the study period, with maximum heights of 0.78–5.63 m (Table 1; Supplementary data Fig. Stalked brown kelp Ecklonia radiata - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Courtesy of the author Johan Swanepoel, Südafrika Image detail. Familia: Lessoniaceae Genus: Ecklonia Species: Ecklonia radiata Name []. Governor Reef presented a different type of kelp bed from the other sites in the study, as it was an offshore patch reef as opposed to a fringing reef parallel to the shore. However, in other cases, the effect of kelp on beach profiles was only relevant in periods of successive storms, where the presence of a kelp bed reduced dune damage by decreasing the time taken for dune re-equilibrium and erosion to end (Lovas and Torum, 2001). For example, floating-canopy kelp species are of a large enough size that they rarely become fully extended under oscillatory motion, and therefore have the ability to ‘go with the flow’, resulting in a potential negligible effect on wave attenuation (Friedland and Denny, 1995). Alongshore currents can mitigate the effect of Stokes drift on floating-canopy kelp, reducing the inertial load and, thus, the extent of wave damping (Gaylord et al., 2003). Ecklonia radiata was selected as the raw material in this study based on our previous experimental studies [6,8,14,23, 24]. IN connexion with our work on the chemistry of cellulose and related carbohydrates, it was found desirable to investigate certain properties of algal polysaccharides. J. Agardh is a common macroalga on reefs in the warm-temperate parts of the southern hemisphere. In northern waters common kelp (Ecklonia radiata) dominates marine forests. Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: a case study from the Gulf Coast of the United States, A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (, Currents and turbulence within a kelp forest (, Interaction of waves and currents with kelp forests (, The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Intraspecific morphological variability of marine macrophytes and its determining factors, Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective, Evidence of an evolutionary–developmental trade-off between drag avoidance and tolerance strategies in wave-swept intertidal kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae), Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future, Investing in natural and nature-based infrastructure: building better along our coasts. Vegetation characteristics (density and lamina length) were used qualitatively to help explain any differences in wave attenuation between the sites; however, formal analyses were not done as there was only one kelp bed, and thus no variability in these parameters, at each site. Coastal protection from erosion and flooding is a significant ecosystem service provided by vegetated marine systems. Basionym. Search for other works by this author on: School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Oceans Graduate School, The University of Western Australia, The wave-driven current in coastal canopies, Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information, Determination of wave transmission coefficients for oyster shell bag breakwaters. S2). At the Mornington and Williamstown sites (Fig. Shepard et al., 2011; Ferrario et al., 2014). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. MATLAB: the language of technical computing: computation, visualization, programming: installation guide for UNIX version 5. Its also NOT found on GoodGuide’s lists of toxic chemicals. Maza M, Lara JL, Losada IJ, Ondiviela B, Trinogga J, Bouma TJ. 1B), with a 3-fold reduction in current speeds and water residence times of up to a week observed within large kelp beds (e.g. Vegetation characteristics such as height, density and individual stiffness, as well as hydrodynamic properties, such as wave height and period, wave–current interactions and water depth, have been identified as determinants for energy dissipation (Maza et al., 2015). For permissions, please e-mail: Limited evidence suggests that where a kelp bed provides wave attenuation, this could build beach profiles by promoting the onshore transport of sediment (Price et al., 1968). This alga also provides a 1A). No need to register, buy now! Carney LT, Waaland JR, Klinger T, Ewing K. Christensen ED, Walstra D-J, Emerat N. Duarte CM, Losada IJ, Hendriks IE, Mazarrasa I, Marba N. Elwany MHS, Oreilly WC, Guza RT, Flick RE. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, Changes in ecosystem engineers: the effects of kelp forest type on currents and benthic assemblages in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, Direct solution of wave dispersion equation, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, The international thermodynamic equation of seawater – 2010: calculation and use of thermodynamic properties, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Manuals and Guides No. Section. For instance, the reef substratum that has been used to create oyster and coral reefs can provide wave attenuation and protection against erosion (Arnouil, 2008; Allen and Webb, 2011). Financial costs of building and maintaining these structures under future climate change scenarios are significant (Hinkel et al., 2014). Data resource (1) Species (1) Taxonomic rank. biodiversity provision, productive fisheries or bioremediation; Gittman et al., 2014; Morris et al., 2018). The output wave energy density spectrum was divided into sea (1–10 s period) and swell (10–20 s period) components for separate analysis (USACE, 1984). All processing was done in MATLAB (MathWorks, 1996) and resulted in hourly data for water depth, significant wave height, wave period and the wave transmission coefficient. In response, there is increasing research investigating the value of natural ecosystems, such as biogenic reefs, dunes, beaches and vegetation, to provide protection against erosion and waves, with the benefit that these systems can adapt to changes in climate, self-repair after major storm events and provide co-benefits in terms of other ecosystem services (e.g. These forces have the potential to alter the properties of waves as they propagate through the bed, resulting in the removal of wave energy (Rosman et al., 2013; Fig. It is a dominant habitat-former and as such has a strong structuring effect on associated algal assemblages. [5][4] It can be found in the low intertidal zone to depths of approximately 25m. Data gaps . NLM (National Library of Medicine). Kelps have traditionally been viewed to ‘go with the flow’ by moving passively with the wave cycles to minimize drag. In Port Phillip Bay, there has been a major decline in kelp beds due to overgrazing by sea urchins (Carnell and Keough, 2019). where Hs is the recorded wave height at the midshore or onshore RBR. 3; Supplementary data Fig. The pressure values recorded by the RBRs were corrected for atmospheric pressure by subtracting the air pressure recorded at the closest weather stations to each site (those that recorded atmospheric pressure were Geelong, Melbourne and Cerberus for Governor Reef, Williamstown and Mornington, respectively). It can be found in the low intertidal zone to depths of approximately 25m. Recently, there has been increasing interest in whether coastal habitats, including kelp beds (Duarte et al., 2013; Ferrario et al., 2014), can provide another highly valued ecosystem service – coastal protection. Home About. Alternatively, nearshore disturbance regimes characteristic of kelp forests whereby E. radiatais cleared from small patches of established forest by storms, grazing or other anthropogenic impacts may result in genetic patchiness because migrants may only be able to colonise bare patches within existing forests or rare areas of unoccupied rocky reef,. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. kelp beds; Smale et al., 2013; Narayan et al., 2016; Morris et al., 2018), where there are too few studies across different locations to make informed decisions about the role these habitats play in coastal defence. During retrieval of the RBRs, the benthic community along the transect between the onshore and offshore RBR at each treatment was surveyed. Thallus streamlining through narrower, thicker and flatter fronds occurs in kelps in wave-exposed environments (Koehl et al., 2008), in addition to a thicker stipe and greater holdfast biomass (Fowler-Walker et al., 2006). Impact of Ecklonia radiata extracts on the neuroprotective activities against amyloid beta (Aβ1-42) toxicity and aggregation Ecklonia radiata (C. Such future research is essential for providing managers and policy makers with actionable information on sustainable and cost-effective solutions for coastal defence when faced with a changing climate. Ecklonia radiata is a species of kelp found in the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Oman, southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the ability of kelp beds to provide coastal protection, beginning briefly with an overview of the coastal processes that are important for this discussion. Basionym. Steneck RS, Graham MH, Bourque BJ, et al. The density of the kelp beds ranged from 6 to 14 individuals per m2, with an average lamina length of 17.98–26.72 cm (Table 1). Greater wave attenuation has been observed to occur for shorter (2–6 s) rather than longer period waves (7–20 s) (Dubi and Tørum, 1996; Lowe et al., 2007; Maza et al., 2015). During the study period, winds from the northerly direction were less frequent, and also of a lower wind speed than southerly winds (Supplementary data Fig. This study examines how variation in turbidity influences the morphology of the kelp Ecklonia radiata, and how this relates to photosynthetic performance, by measuring multiple morphological characteristics, photosynthesis‐irradiance response, and photosynthetic pigments in adult kelp across a large‐scale turbidity gradient. Characteristics of Ecklonia radiata. The phloroglucinols appear to be very potent anti-oxidants, and these benefits have been noted after oral ingestion as well. 2 weeks at each location between December 2017 and April 2018; deployment and retrieval of RBRs by divers was weather dependent. Kelps are large, canopy-forming brown algae in the order Laminariales (Dayton, 1985). Further, this research is more advanced for some habitats (e.g. Shepard et al., 2011; Ferrario et al., 2014; Narayan et al., 2016; Reguero et al., 2018). Variation in net assimilation rate and leaf area between species and varieties, and within and between years, Wave attenuation by oyster reefs in shallow coastal bays, Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Lu YJ, Li SQ, Zuo LQ, Liu HX, Roelvink JA. How do benthic organisms withstand moving water? Wave spectra for a randomly chosen sub-set of time points for each site support these results (Supplementary data Fig. It has been characterized as a warm‐temperate species, with a broad optimal temperature range for growth and reproduction of 12°C to 20°C, and decreasing performance outside this range ( Novaczek 1984 ). 3; Supplementary data Fig. Here, the extraction kinetics of fucoidan from the brown alga Ecklonia radiata under classical conditions (hydrochloric acid at 60 °C, pH 2) have been investigated, using both convective and microwave heating in open vessels for up to 3 h. The yield, purity and key structural characteristics of the fucoidan extracts were assessed. Impacts of fringing oyster reefs on wave attenuation and marsh erosion rates. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. Media in category "Ecklonia radiata"The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. Wave loggers (RBR®solo D wave; hereafter ‘RBR’) were deployed for approx. Nevertheless, our research supports the importance of having controls, in particular when evaluating reef-colonizing organisms. Ferrario F, Beck MW, Storlazzi CD, Micheli F, Shepard CC, Airoldi L. Fowler-Walker MJ, Wernberg T, Connell SD. (Dayton, 1985; Fig. The kelp Ecklonia radiata is the dominant macroalga in the subtidal marine communities of north-eastern New Zealand (Choat & Schiel 1982) and is a major component of food webs in these habitats (Andrew 1986, Choat and Andrew 1986, Meekan 1986, Keestra 1987, Andrew & MacDiarmid 1991). Concern Reference; 15 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical see search results -> NLM PubMed: Data Sources. 4B). As climate change drives an increased risk of coastal hazards to a proliferating coastal population, there is a growing body of evidence to support the use of natural and nature-based infrastructure as sustainable and cost-effective coastal defence tools (e.g. This relationship between vegetation height and water depth has been commonly identified in previous studies (e.g. Further, two identical values of average rugosity at any scale could interact quite differently with an incident wave field through processes such as shoaling, reflection, diffraction and refraction (Reeve et al., 2012) as the topography is unlikely to match exactly. Governor Reef, however, was at an angle to the shore, with a less obvious sheltered and exposed side. Differences in kelp morphology between wave sheltered and exposed localities: morphologically plastic or fixed traits? We have highlighted a significant gap in the research on ecosystem services provided by kelp beds. This translates into cross-shore flows being more important than longshore flows for transport of material via fluid exchange into the kelp bed (Jackson, 1997), especially for large, wide (kilometre-scale) kelp beds (Gaylord et al., 2007). Courtesy of the author Javier Couper,New Zealand (Photo taken by Javier Couper) Image detail. where d is the water depth, P is the pressure, ρw is the density of water, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Golden Kelp (Ecklonia radiata) Kelp Store. This could be addressed more specifically in future studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. [4], "Ecklonia radiata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh :: Algaebase", "Canopy–understorey relationships are mediated by reef topography in Ecklonia radiata kelp beds",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 April 2020, at 20:11. Brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) polyphenolics such as phlorotannins are ascribed various biological activities, including neuroprotection. It has a score of 0 (the lower the better) at 1B). During storms, large waves erode sediment from the beach and dunes, and it is transported by offshore currents (Lu et al., 2015). Kelp beds provide a number of ecosystem services such as the provision of habitat that supports high biodiversity (Teagle et al., 2017), productive fisheries (Bertocci et al., 2015), nutrient cycling (Bennett et al., 2016) and recreation (Menzel et al., 2013), and thus have high ecological and socio-economic value. Positive values for the longshore wind vector indicate a wind direction blowing to the right when looking at the beach from offshore. Once we have a greater understanding of how kelp influences hydrodynamic parameters, the link between the changes in these processes and coastal erosion then needs to be better understood. We highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of the reef substratum and kelp when evaluating the efficacy of kelp at providing coastal protection. Study sites and fetch vectors for Governor Reef, Williamstown reefs and Mornington reef, Port Phillip Bay, Australia. All data were filtered according to offshore significant wave height, and only those records >0.05 m were used. A large rock pool, Whangaparaoa,2018 Uploaded by Muelly. Sources and Credits The influence of waves and seagrass communities on suspended particulates in an estuarine embayment, Comparative physiological studies in the growth of field crops. Wave attenuation by submerged vegetation: combining the effect of organism traits and tidal current, Quantifying wave attenuation to inform coastal habitat conservation, The effect of artificial seaweed in promoting the build-up of beaches. Reguero BG, Beck MW, Bresch DN, Calil J, Meliane I. Rosman JH, Koseff JR, Monismith SG, Grover J. Rosman JH, Monismith SG, Denny MW, Koseff JR. Rosman JH, Denny MW, Zeller RB, Monismith SG, Koseff JR. Smale DA, Burrows MT, Moore P, O’Connor N, Hawkins SJ. The relative importance of significant wave height, wave period, water depth, longshore and cross-shore wind vectors on the magnitude of difference in Kt between the kelp and control treatments at each site for the off- (upwind for Governor Reef) to onshore (downwind for Governor Reef) data was tested using partial leverage plots in JMP®. Sporophytes to 1 m tall, but longer in some deep subtidal specimens. The wave period corresponding to the significant wave height, T1/3, was approximated as 1.2 Tm0.1, where Tm0.1 is the zero-crossing period [eqn (4); Goda, 2010]. Ecklonia radiata. There are nine species: Ecklonia biruncinata; Ecklonia brevipes; Ecklonia cava; Ecklonia fastigiata; Ecklonia kurome; Ecklonia maxima; Ecklonia muratii; Ecklonia radiata; Ecklonia stolonifera; Ecklonia radicosa; Ecklonia species produce eckol-type phlorotannins. J. Agardh is a common macroalga on reefs in the warm-temperate parts of the southern hemisphere. This result was consistent across the environmental conditions recorded in this study. Equally, substantial ecological impacts are caused through the replacement of natural habitats with artificial structures, and the introduction of novel substrata for colonization, which are often hotspots for invasive species (Bulleri and Chapman, 2010). These reefs were chosen as they have areas of urchin barrens (areas of reef where kelp has been deforested through urchin overgrazing; Filbee-Dexter and Scheibling, 2014) directly adjacent to intact E. radiata (hereafter ‘kelp’) beds. More gametes were formed in warmer (15 °C) rather than colder (10 °C) conditions – and under longer rather than shorter days (15 vs 9 hours). Gittman RK, Popowich AM, Bruno JF, Peterson CH. The wind roses show the wind direction summary over the past 5 years (refer to Supplementary data Fig. This study has highlighted the importance of disentangling the effects of the reef substratum and the colonizing organism on wave attenuation. The seafloor affects the shape of the orbit and it becomes elliptical, resulting in a change in orbital motion and surface wave form (Fig. S1). However, wave attenuation at kelp beds was 10 % greater than the control during periods of northerly winds. Brief Profile REACH registered substance factsheets C&L Inventory Biocidal active substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations . Wave attenuation between the RBRs placed offshore (for Mornington and Williamstown reefs) or upwind (Governor Reef) and midshore was significantly different between treatments for all sites (Fig. Values below 1 indicate a reduction in wave height, whereas values above 1 indicate an increase in wave height. E. radiata occurs in waters ranging in temperature from ∼8°C to 24°C ( Bolton and Anderson 1994 ). Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. Ecklonia radiata is a species of kelp found in the Canary Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Oman, southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and New Zealand. CAS no.:-Mol. Find the perfect ecklonia radiata stock photo. After 24 h fermentation, three seaweed fractions, except the phlorotannin-enriched fraction … Coarser particles of sand and gravel though are often exchanged cross- and alongshore, which can result in short- or long-term changes in the shore profile (Pruszak et al., 2011). 36° 16′S, Long. Linear wave theory was used to calculate deep water wave characteristics based on the offshore RBR. Even within the one species or canopy, however, the tidal cycle (Rosman et al., 2010) and season (Gaylord et al., 2007) can impact the biomass of the surface canopy. 3). The wave energy density spectrum was then corrected for depth by dividing it by the pressure response factor squared. 3). A similar decline in kelp is also occurring in many other locations globally (Krumhansl et al., 2016). In previous field research where it was concluded that there was a significant damping effect of kelp without the use of controls, it is possible that this was due to the effect of the reef and not the kelp (Mork, 1996). This may explain field measurements of a Macrocystis bed (13 m deep, 350 m wide), where there was no difference in wave attenuation between the kelp bed and control sites for waves of periods 3–20 s (Elwany et al., 1995), and similar results were found in a later study (Rosman et al., 2007). Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Related Searches. Kelps are found in sheltered and wave-swept environments; their flexibility allows them to reconfigure and reorientate under flow and still achieve the large sizes that would not normally be expected under high energy conditions (Denny and Cowen, 1997). There was a strong positive correlation between substratum complexity and the density and diversity of cryptic fish assemblages. S1). Courtesy of the author Javier Couper,New Zealand (Photo taken by Javier Couper) Image detail. The morphology of E. radiata differs at sheltered vs. wave-exposed sites (Fowler-Walker et al., 2006). The RBRs were attached with cable ties (approx. where Etotal is the total energy defined as the integral of the wave energy density spectrum. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Coastal Engineering. Wave attenuation from the offshore to midshore, offshore to onshore, upwind to midshore and upwind to downwind RBRs were compared between controls and kelp beds using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; ‘car’ package in R; Fox and Weisberg, 2018; type III sum of squares), with Kt as the response variable and treatment and site as fixed factors. Field measurements of boat wake attenuation in coastal salt marshes. from two New Zealand locations with different field temperature ranges were exposed to temperatures of 5° to 26°C in saturating light. Bennett S, Wernberg T, Connell SD, Hobday AJ, Johnson CR, Poloczanska ES. Future climate change is predicted to intensify the drivers of coastal hazards through increases in sea level, greater wave height and more extreme storm events (Young et al., 2011; IPCC, 2014). An alternative would be to bring the experiment into the lab and test the damping performance of E. radiata under various wave conditions using a more controlled environment in a wave flume, or field observations of wave transmission on reefs before and after the loss or recovery of kelp. Kobayashi et al., 1993), the predicted rates of energy loss by flexible organisms are 2–20 times lower than they would be for rigid organisms (Gaylord et al., 2003). wave height >0.05 m, Copyright © 2020 Annals of Botany Company. Shepard et al., 2011). Under low light conditions the gametophytes didn't form sperm or eggs but instead grew as filamentous clumps. Plants with greater flexibility need a greater leaf area index to achieve the same wave attenuation as stiffer plants (Paul et al., 2012). Diffusion and ecological problems: modern perspectives. Kelp is a dominant habitat-forming organism in temperate coastal reef systems worldwide (Steneck et al., 2002). Ecklonia radiata-associated virus 5 Rep-A and capsid-like protein genes, complete cds. Ecklonia radiata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh, 1848 . Help Regulatory context. Ag.) Kelp species can be grouped into three broad guilds based on their morphology: floating canopy (large species with fronds at or near the surface, e.g. Armouring the coast with ‘hard’ engineered structures, such as seawalls and breakwaters, is currently the most common solution for defence; however, these structures are becoming less environmentally and economically sustainable. Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Koch EW, Ackerman JD, Verduin J, Keulen Mv. The inset shows the transects for kelp (green) and control (black) relative to the shore (denoted with an arrow). The leaf area index has been used for saltmarshes and seagrasses (Paul et al., 2012; Maza et al., 2015), which is defined as the total one-sided leaf area per unit ground surface area (Watson, 1947). Login. taller vegetation in shallower water depths creates greater wave attenuation; Maza et al., 2015). At three sites, the wave attenuation of kelp beds was significantly less than that of the control. A pressure response factor, Kp, was determined for each frequency bin of the fast-Fourier transform [eqn (2); Kamphius, 2010]. Aquatic macrophytes have a significant effect on the structure of mean currents and surface waves through exerting drag in the water column (Okubo et al., 2001; Koch et al., 2006), which in turn can modify sediment transport processes (López and García, 1998). Simultaneously, there is a growing interest in using natural or restored systems to provide a sustainable coastal defence solution (Temmerman et al., 2013). However, few studies have investigated this directly, or made the link between changes in hydrodynamics caused by kelp beds and subsequent impacts on shoreline profile (e.g. Shoreline response for a Reef Ball™ submerged breakwater system offshore of Grand Cayman Island. Holdfast at base is simple with a few supporting roots (haptera). Your Ecklonia Radiata stock images are ready. Wave period and water depth are two key parameters that have been shown to affect wave attenuation. However, Ecklonia radiata, the dominant habitat-forming seaweed in temperate Australian and New Zealand waters, was reported to experience high rates of mortality (Lachnit et al., 2013), which was attributed to a combination of environmental stress and viral infections, leading to discolouration and bleaching. This study aimed to understand the prebiotic potential and contribution of four extract fractions from the brown seaweed Ecklonia radiata. As currents become stronger, current attenuation by vegetation tends to decline (Lacy and Wyllie-Echeverria, 2011). Morphology can also vary seasonally, with a reduction in biomass coincident with times of the year that experience the greatest wave energy (de Bettignies et al., 2013, 2015). The strength of the currents is influenced by the size of wave set-up, but can also be affected by local winds and tides. Synonyms []. Kelp is one of the dominant habitat-forming organisms of temperate reefs worldwide, making it a good candidate for nature-based coastal protection. These adaptations have been found to be plastic traits, with changes occurring rapidly when individuals are exposed to a new environment (Fowler-Walker et al., 2006; Koehl et al., 2008). name = "Ecklonia radiata" regnum = Protista divisio = Heterokont ophyta classis = Phaeophyceae ordo = Laminariales familia = Alariaceae genus = "Ecklonia " species = "E. radiata" binomial = "Ecklonia radiata" binomial_authority = J. Agardh, 1848 synonyms = "Fucus radiatus"

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